It's also possible the skins would have been made from smaller reindeer hides, but this seems unlikely since the hunters had sought and favoured the larger irish reindeer, and the coracle placed on top of the raft would have been too small.
Whatever the ocean ships were made of, the hunter-gatherers sought reindeer and knew they lied north of the Bay of Biscay and set out to sail from there.
Modern humans (H.s.sapiens) were present in western Europe by 35 000 B. During the final glaciation they occupied the area south of the major ice sheets, including both Spain and southern Britain.
The reason being for this is that after menstruation and child birth, they needed protection from the cold and other weather elements to raise and feed thier children.This is probably where the women, over thousands of years, obtained the recessive genotypes like lighter skin and hazel eyes, although not necessarily the dominate phenotype of the O blood factor which they most likely picked up 5-6000 years earlier when they ventured out of Siberia on thier way to northern and southern Europe.It is positively sure that a few of the O rhesus positive women joined the O rhesus negative tribe, but a lot of the women travelling to southern Europe just below the Swiss alps likely still had the O rhesus negative factor while those travelling north of the glaciated Swiss alps likely had the O rhesus positive factor.This may explain why a lot of Spanish and Italians presently have dark hair as opposed to the Germans and French who have lighter complexions and blond or blonde hair.The original Europeans who carried the rhesus negative blood factor 35 000 years ago are probably the original Europeans who painted the comic strips and other art in the caves of southern France and northern Spain which includes the Chauvet-Pont-d' Arc cave and the Lascaux cave paintings found in the Pyrennes.
The rhesus negative blood factor is a recessive phenotype while the O rhesus positive factor is a dominant phenotype.
A coracle was placed on top of the gripper bar raft which was tied down to the corners of the raft with leather rope.
The coracle may have had small holes in it to allow for a paddle rudder mounted on an A-frame to steer the raft.
The weather appears to have been considerably better than it is today as O'Kelly wrote: "In circa 9,600 BP, the Boreal Phase, birch was still present but hazel began to expand greatly.
The lowlands and lower mountain slopes became covered in woodland and the heath lands seem to have disappeared.
The first and most important of these bases established was likely on Orkney, which has the longest record of continuous settlement of the British Isles and has rich archaeological sites to prove it.