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However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.

Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times.

During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy.As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it.This variety and both its classicizing and "lay" iterations have been termed Middle Arabic in the past, but they are thought to continue an Old Higazi register.It is clear that the orthography of the Qur'an was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi.In eastern Arabia, inscriptions in a script derived from ASA attest to a language known as Hasaitic.

Finally, on the northwestern frontier of Arabia, various languages known to scholars as Thamudic B, Thamudic D, Safaitic, and Hismaic are attested.

To the north, in the oases of northern Hejaz, Dadanitic and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages.

In Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested.

Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages (Aramaic, Hebrew, Ugaritic and Phoenician), the Ancient South Arabian languages, and various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic.

The Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar.

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