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The wide spread use of Li-ion battery, has been and remains a testament for the numerous breakthroughs and technical advancements made thus far.

One of the main challenges that current rechargeable battery technologies face is their inability to maintain energy and power densities sufficient to meet those demanded by their applications.

This resulted in a decline in further technical progresses and commercialization of what was referred to as the “ultimate lithium metal anode”.

The basic principles of a battery are rather old; its invention by Allessandro Volta dates back to the eighteenth century [2] (archeological findings in the 20th century even suggest that the first battery was developed in Mesopotamia dating back to 2000 BC, to what is referred to as the “Baghdad battery” [3]).

Since its invention, and most particularly in the twentieth century, advancements in energy storage technologies continued to evolve over time resulting in a myriad of distinct batteries and energy storage chemistries [1].

Despite the technical accomplishments made thus far, challenges, on the material level, hamper the realization of a practical rechargeable magnesium battery.

These are marked by the absence of practical cathodes, appropriate electrolytes and extremely sluggish reaction kinetics.

Keeping in-line with high academic quality, non-peer reviewed articles, patents and conference abstracts are not included.

As the battery is a complex system employing several components, the review will individually address progresses related to the major components which are the anode, the electrolyte and the cathode.

Fortunately, critical technical advancements geared towards overcoming the existing hurdles are made continuosly [7,9].

These, along with past and future dedicated research efforts, would play a vital role in enabling the maturity and readiness of rechargeable magnesium battery technologies.

For example, lithium batteries using lithium metal anodes have attracted attention as a candidate to fill up the aforementioned gap.

However, this system suffers from the intrinsic property of lithium to form needle-like lithium crystals, known as dendrites, when it is plated.

These grow with subsequent plating/stripping cycles, resulting in an internal short circuit and fire hazards [5,6].