- 1931 Georges Lemaître: big bang proposal in Nature.Hubble Reindicted: Post-dating the "discovery" of the expansion and pre-dating the theory not only helps with the canonical big bang storytelling, as an aside, it also helped to wrongly attribute the "Hubble Law".What Lemaître sought were solutions to [Einstein's] field equations that would avoid "Einstein's static universe... (Eddington in 1931 estimated the universe originally at between a billion and 1.2 billion light-years in radius before it began expanding and later that same year Lemaître wrote in Monthly Notices on how, "the expansion of may be started..." (Note, this explicitly is NOT a big bang origin of the universe but the start of an expansion of a universe already in existence.) - 1929 Edwin Hubble: A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae, which paper included the "Hubble Law" [called that because Hubble failed to attribute it as Lemaître's Law].
Consider also from Ostriker & Milton, for Lemaître in "Belgium in 1925...Slipher's spectra established that the spiral nebulae are extragalactic and gave their velocities... "both of those models were [valid] solutions to Einstein's equations..." - 1926 Edwin Hubble: Extra-galactic Nebulae: "This contribution gives the results of a statistical investigation of 400 extragalactic nebulae for which Holetschek has determined total visual magnitudes." - 1927 Georges Lemaître: Two years before Hubble, Lemaître explicitly published what was later misnamed the "Hubble Law", in his paper, "A homogeneous universe of constant mass and increasing radius accounting for the radial velocity of a period of time in which the universe was static.The big bang's poor predictions track record is extensive as shown from its many failures including...- Yet even secular science authorities have begun objecting to the systematic misattribution, and hence, post-dating, of the the claim of expansion.The RSR comments in brackets highlight the obviously intentional sloppiness, for the canonical account of the big bang theory requires this kind of misrepresentation: The Big Bang model was a natural outcome of Einstein's General Relativity... The year after he published GR, Einstein added a constant to support his own view that a static universe had existed eternally.
That constant can be arbitrarily valued as either positive, zero, or negative to obtain a repulsive, static, or attractive force that would tend toward expansion, a static, or a contracting universe.] However in 1917, the idea that the universe was expanding was thought to be absurd.
So consider this concise, corrected chronology of discovery: - 1912 Vesto Slipher: The radial velocity of the Andromeda Nebula.
- 1915 Slipher: "the average velocity of the spirals is about 25 times the average stellar velocity." - 1917 Willem de Sitter: "The lines in the spectra of very distant stars or nebulae must therefore be systematically displaced towards the red, giving rise to a spurious positive radial velocity" [earliest redshift cosmological hypothesis].
Expansion was not a "prediction" of the 1931 big bang theory; it was a 1920s interpretation of both Einstein's equations and red-shift data.
The Corrected History of the Discovery of Expansion: On the entire Internet, the following is the most concise and reasonably comprehensive chronology of the discovery of the (apparent) expansion of the universe.
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