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Joseph Swan's electric light bulbs, and Charles Parsons' invention of the steam turbine, which led to the revolution of marine propulsion and the production of cheap electricity.

In 1882, Newcastle became the seat of an Anglican diocese, with St. Newcastle's public transport system was modernised in 1901 when Newcastle Corporation Tramways electric trams were introduced to the city's streets, though these were replaced gradually by trolley buses from 1935, with the tram service finally coming to an end in 1950.

commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, 8.5 mi (13.7 km) from the North Sea.The regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie.They were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere.In the 1630s, about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague, more than one-third of the population.The town was henceforth known as Novum Castellum or New Castle.

The wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle in 1087.The population of Pons Aelius then is estimated at 2,000.Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle, particularly along the West Road.The course of the "Roman Wall" can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the "wall's end"—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields.Because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080.Newcastle was successfully defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century, and was created a county corporate with its own sheriff by Henry IV in 1400.