603) Ancient Roman recipes " [Baked picnic] Ham [Pork Shoulder, fresh or cured] Pernam The hams should be braised with a good number of figs and some three laurel leaves; the skin is then pulled off and cut into square pieces; these are macerated with honey.  Lay the dough over or around the ham, stud the top with the pieces of the skin so that they will be baked with the dough [bake slowly] and when done, retire from the oven and serve.
" ---Apicius, Book VII, IX, Apicius: Cookery and Dining in Imperial Rome, edited and translated by Joseph Dommers Vehling, facsimile 1936 edition [Dover Publications: Mineola NY] 1977 (p.
In the cradles of civilization (Mediterranean region including Ancient Rome, Greece, Mesopotamia, Egypt and Arabia) the primary fat was olive oil.
Cooking methods (baked or fried in ancient hearths, portable colonial/pioneer Dutch ovens, modern ovens), pastry composition (flat bread, flour/fat/water crusts, puff paste, milles feuilles), and cultural preference (pita, pizza, quiche, shepherd's, lemon meringue, classic apple, chocolate pudding).
All figure prominently into the complicated history of this particular genre of food.
169) [NOTES (appended to this recipe:  Ordinary pie or pastry dough, or perhaps a preparation similar to streusel, unsweetened.
 Experimenting with this formula, we have adhered to the instructions as closely as possible, using regular pie dough to envelope the parboiled meat.
Pie can be closed, open, small, large, savory or sweet.
The basic concept of pies and tarts has changed little throughout the ages.603) First pies Food historians confirm ancient people made pastry.Recipes, cooking techniques, meal presence and presentations varied according to culture and cuisine.The challenging part of researching these early pies is most of us rely on translators of original texts.These can vary according to scholarly proficiency and educated interpretation.The figs were retired from the sauce pan long before the meat was done and they were served around the ham as a garnish.] Compare with this Latin text, English translation and modern instructions: "Pernam, ubi eam cum caricis plurimis elixa veris et tribus lauri foliis, detracta cute tessellatim indicis et melle complebis.