Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany (800 C. He helped restore some church-based education in western Europe, and the level of intellectual activity began a slow recovering. In 610/earlier, he received the first of many revelations: Allah transmitted to him through the angel Gabriel.
Believed in the five pillars: (1) There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet. (3) Fast during the month of Ramadan which enhances community solidarity and allowed the faithful to demonstrate their fervor.
E.) A caliph is a political and religious successor to Muhammad.
century, the wave reached the east African interior. Classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central American contemporary with Teotihuacn; extended over broad religion; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical systems, highly developed religion.
The civilizations included the urbanized cultures of Chav�n, Moche, Ica-Nazca, Chimu, Tiwanaku, Aymara, Chachapoya, and other Pre-Inca cultures.
The semi-urbanized Inca conquered greater Peru in the 15th century.
Bantu-speaking herders in the north and farmers in the south mixed with older populations in the region. developed in the second millennium BCE in the central Andes and the central Pacific coast of South America.
While oldest artifacts carbon date around 9750 BCE, evidence of a significant economic surplus begins around 2000 BCE.After 1180 BC, the Hittite polity disintegrated into several independent city-states, some of which survived as late as around 700 BC.used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran).Cultural centers shifted away from mainland Greece, to Pergamon, Rhodes, Antioch and Alexandria.republican government of the city of Rome and its territories from 510 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire, which sometimes placed at 44 BC the year of Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator or, more commonly, 27 BC the year that the Roman Senate granted Octavian the title "Augustus".The Mississippian (archaeological) Stage is usually considered to come to a close with the arrival of European contact, although the Mississippian way of life continued among their descendants.