The growing town was devastated by a cholera epidemic in 1833, which had spread throughout the waterways of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys: 500 of 7,000 Lexington residents died within two months, including nearly one-third of the congregation of Christ Church Episcopal.
Additional cholera outbreaks occurred in 1848–49 and the early 1850s.
In 1935 during the Great Depression, the Addiction Research Center (ARC) was created as a small research unit at the U. Expanded as the first alcohol and drug rehabilitation hospital in the United States, it was known as "Narco" of Lexington.
The hospital was later converted to operate as part of the federal prison system; it is known as the Federal Medical Center, Lexington and serves a variety of health needs for prisoners.
Residents have fondly continued to refer to Lexington as "The Athens of the West" since Espy's poem dedicated to the city.
In the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies.
In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginia's newly organized Fayette County.
Colonists defended it against a British and allied Shawnee attack in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. Durrett helped guide "The Travelling Church", a group migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County, Virginia to Kentucky in 1781.
This area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans.
European explorers began to trade with them, but settlers did not come in large numbers until the late 18th century.
Lexington is the largest and most wealthy town in Kentucky, or indeed west of the Allegheny Mountains; the main street of Lexington has all the appearance of Market Street in Philadelphia on a busy day ...
I would suppose it contains about five hundred dwelling houses [it was closer to three hundred], many of them elegant and three stories high.
Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was then considered Fincastle County, Virginia, 17 years before Kentucky became a state.