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Earthquake seismology has largely been responsible for defining the location of major plate boundaries and of the dip of subduction zones down to depths of about 700 kilometres at those boundaries.

In other subdisciplines of geophysics, gravimetric techniques are used to determine the shape and size of underground structures; electrical methods help to locate a variety of mineral deposits that tend to be good conductors of electricity; and paleomagnetism has played the principal role in tracking the drift of continents.

Stratigraphers still use the two main principles established by the late 18th-century English engineer and surveyor William Smith, regarded as the father of stratigraphy: (1) that younger beds rest upon older ones and (2) different sedimentary beds contain different and distinctive fossils, enabling beds with similar fossils to be correlated over large distances.

Geology, the fields of study concerned with the solid Earth.

Included are sciences such as mineralogy, geodesy, and stratigraphy.

Geochemistry is the study of the composition of these different types of rocks.

During mountain building, rocks became highly deformed, and the primary objective of structural geology is to elucidate the mechanism of formation of the many types of structures (e.g., folds and faults) that arise from such deformation.

This in turn helps in interpreting the mode of formation and the depositional environment of sedimentary rocks.

Thus the discipline of geomorphology is fundamental to the uniformitarian approach to the Earth sciences according to which the present is the key to the past.Paleontology is the study of fossils and is concerned not only with their description and classification but also with an analysis of the evolution of the organisms involved.Simple fossil forms can be found in early Precambrian rocks as old as 3,500,000,000 years, and it is widely considered that life on Earth must have begun before the appearance of the oldest rocks.The geologist is responsible for the discovery of minerals (such as lead, chromium, nickel, and tin), oil, gas, and coal, which are the main economic resources of the Earth; for the application of knowledge of subsurface structures and geologic conditions to the building industry; and for the prevention of natural hazards or at least providing early warning of their occurrence.(For further examples, Moon, for example, provided scientists with firsthand information on lunar geology, including observations on such features as meteorite craters that are relatively rare on Earth.The allied field of geophysics has several subdisciplines, which make use of different instrumental techniques.