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A third strategy centers around managing the choices available to participants, what is known as nudging.

The PTP takes advantage of a fourth behavioral science strategy of precommitment – if you publicly commit to a certain course, you will be much more likely to follow it.

It can mean lying by omission, as when a scholar publishes a study with a successful experiment, while hiding that he conducted 50 of the same experiments that failed, until by random chance one finally worked, a phenomenon known as publication bias.

Leaders of organizations are lying more and more frequently, and usually do not get punished.It’s not only a problem with public figures: fake news, more recently termed “viral deception,” is sweeping social media, shared by ordinary people.For more information, watch this Q&A video about the Pro-Truth Pledge.Misinformation is anything that goes against reality.The Logo for the Pro-Truth Pledge " data-medium-file="https://i2com/ fit=250,250&ssl=1" class="alignnone size-full wp-image-2815" src="https://i2com/ resize=250,250&ssl=1" alt="Pro-Truth Pledge Logo" width="250" height="250" srcset="https://i2com/ resize=150,150&ssl=1 150w" sizes="(max-width: 250px) 100vw, 250px" data-recalc-dims="1" /Unfortunately, we cannot trust politicians and other public figures to tell the truth.

The pledge changes the incentive structure for public figures to promote truth-telling instead of lying.

For those tough calls we rely on credible fact-checking sites and the scientific consensus.

The PTP is violated when a pledge-taker shares misinformation.

Sharing such misinformation is not necessarily intended to harm others or even deliberately deceive, as our minds are not intuitively set on seeking the truth.

Research suggests our emotions and intuitions instead focus on protecting our worldview and personal identity rather than updating our beliefs based on the most accurate information.

From the perspective of the PTP, misinformation is anything that goes against the truth of reality.